Recognising these issues, it is clearly critical that developmental research should ensure that the language, materials, setting and other aspects of data collection from children are appropriate to their cultural backgrounds.
However, in some circumstances particular tests work across different cultures.
In addition, it is easy to assume that children understand language in the same way as adults and thus they will find it as easy to follow instructions or to respond to questions as adults do. A task on which all children perform in exactly the same way, no matter what age they are or whatever their background, is unlikely to be of much interest to any researchers.
These are usually only available to appropriately qualified psychologists, who have been registered with the test supplier, the two most important of these suppliers being the Psychological Corporation and Harcourt. An example of why this may be important is given by a case in which an intervention to improve the reading ability of poor readers might fail to show effects because the test used to assess reading ability has a marked floor effect.
Thus, children whose reading ability genuinely improved as a result of the intervention might still score at or around zero because the test does not discriminate well between poor readers, although it may discriminate well between average and better than average readers.
In the assessment of conservation the context of the question can have a powerful effect These factors can affect the validity of the assessment, and affect the relation between competence and performance.
This points to the need to examine whether what is being asked of a child in a psychological task is valid for their ecology, in other words, their social and cultural milieu.
Good standardised tests attempt to avoid these problems. It is salutary to recognise that even something that seems so basic as the idea of a competition in which there are a winner and losers is an alien idea in some cultures, for example the Inuit of North America, where striving is valued greatly above winning.
An aspect that researchers have to bear in mind is to avoid what are called floor and ceiling effects. A general term that sums this up is ecological validity.
The ceiling effect is where a substantial number of children score at a maximum level, and hence it is not possible to distinguish between them in terms of their performance on the task.
A contribution to cross-cultural Piagetian psychologyin Warren, N. These suppliers will only issue test materials to bona fide researchers and practitioners, under license agreements which restrict their use to specified circumstances such as testing children in schools to assess their educational needs or as part of an institutional based research project, for example.
To do so means stepping outside our own cultural and social frame and doing our best to overcome the tendency to ethnocentrism, that is, believing that the world as we experience it is a primary reference point and that other ways of being and seeing are deviations or aberrations from our own.
Such standardised tests are only published after extensive periods of development to establish their validity i.
To ensure that the results of developmental research are reliable, it is important to ensure that tasks are administered to children consistently, in a standard way. How are standardised tests used? This is a difficult issue as tests are often designed to be administered in a specific way.
However, it often seems that children will place more reliance on non-verbal cues or the context of the question than would adults.
Modern ideas of situated cognition such as those put forward by WJ Clancey in the article Situated cognition: In research, because of the practice of writing up results for publication, and so that other people can collect comparable data, it is especially important to be precise about how long a researcher should wait for a child to answer a question, for example, or how long a child should be given to get six pegs into six holes in a plastic strip.
So, clearly, we must not make assumptions about cultural specificity or universality without testing out whether they are justified or not. The development of standardised tests Much of developmental research is looking for differences between children in order to explore the factors that influence such variations.
Psychological tests are not necessarily paper and pencil, although many are; they may include the use of toys, as in the Test of Pretend Play or a variety of objects, such as cups, blocks, crayons and boxes, as in the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Hence the response of an Inuit child in a psychological assessment that asks whether a child who has won a game is happy, might validly be that they are unhappy, based on the underlying premise that satisfaction comes from trying hard, not from winning.Investigating the Relationship between High School Technology Education and Test Scores for Algebra 1 and Geometry areas has led technology educators to show linkages between their courses and Did students who had not passed the mathematics SOL tests do better on their retake examinations after they took an illustration and.
This research examined relationships between children’s information technology (IT) use and their creativity. Four types of information. school and students’ perception of their own academic competence influence achievement in School Context, Student Attitudes and Behavior, and Academic Achievement studies have identified higher levels of student engagement as important predictors of scores on standardized achievement tests, classroom learning and.
A Study of the Relationship Between Use of Technology in Math and Higher Test Scores Mary Ann Grooters A Study of the Relationship Between Use of Technology in Math and Higher Test Scores Mary Ann Grooters Winter, chapter tests compared achievement scores of both groups.
Assessing children's abilities; Education & Development. Featured content. Free courses. Assessment is a broader term that refers to the way that many clinicians and researchers will use one or more tests or tasks, and their own observations as well, to form a general impression of a child’s ability, state of mind or other psychological.
between technology use and standardized test scores are presented. While there are psychometric challenges in linking technology use with scores on standardized tests, improved standardized test scores Based upon their classification system, the authors found weak and, in some cases, negative relationships between technology and .Download