The processing disadvantage in English is usually described in terms of the relative lack of homophones in the English language. Instead, the authors hypothesize that the difference in latency times is due to additional processing costs in Japanese, where the reader cannot rely solely on a direct orthography to phonology route, but information on a lexical-syntactical level must also be accessed in order to choose the correct pronunciation.
In other cases, however, characters were borrowed to represent native Japanese and Korean morphemes, on the basis of meaning alone. Etymology[ edit ] A page from an textbook displaying the alphabet. The suffix is preserved in the modern falling tone.
Education after elementary school includes not as many new characters as new words, which are mostly combination of two or more already learned characters. A peculiar system of logograms developed within the Pahlavi scripts developed from the Aramaic abjad used to write Middle Persian during much of the Sassanid period ; the logograms were composed of letters that spelled out the word in Aramaic but were pronounced as in Persian for instance, the combination m-l-k would be pronounced "shah".
The researchers also tested whether orthographically similar homophones would yield a disadvantage in processing, as has been the case with English homophones,  but found no evidence for this.
Conversely, a phonetic character set is written precisely as it is spoken, but with the disadvantage that slight pronunciation differences introduce ambiguities. Chinese characters used in Japanese and Korean[ edit ] Within the context of the Chinese language, Chinese characters known as hanzi by and large represent words and morphemes rather than pure ideas; however, the adoption of Chinese characters by the Japanese and Korean languages where they are known as kanji and hanjarespectively have resulted in some complications to this picture.
The quarterly journal logogram writing a letter experimental logogram writing a letter. Baxter and Laurent Sagart  — but sound changes in the intervening 3, years or so including two different dialectal developments, in the case of the last two characters have resulted in radically different pronunciations.
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Both English and French orthography are more complicated than that and character combinations are often pronounced in multiple ways, usually depending on their history.
Despite being called "compounds", these logograms are still single characters, and are written to take up the same amount of space as any other logogram. Contrasting logographic languages, where a single character is represented phonetically and ideographically, with phonetic languages has yielded insights into how different languages rely on different processing mechanisms.
When a homophonic word is encountered, the phonological representation of that word is first activated. The ampersand can be traced back to the 1st century A.
Although some studies have yielded results consistent with this hypothesis there are too many contrasting results to make any final conclusions about the role of hemispheric lateralization in orthographic versus phonetic languages.
Asymmetries of Body, Brain and Cognition. Hangulthe Korean language writing system, is an example of an alphabet that was designed to replace the logogrammic hanja in order to increase literacy.
In earlier times, greater phonetic freedom was generally allowed. The latter is now rarely used in Korea, but retains some currency in South Korea, sometimes in combination with hangul.
Apart from this, Unicode also has the following variants: An example may be seen in M. Logograms are used in modern shorthand to represent common words. Instead, the authors hypothesize that the difference in latency times is due to additional processing costs in Japanese, where the reader cannot rely solely on a direct orthography-to-phonology route, but information on a lexical-syntactical level must also be accessed in order to choose the correct pronunciation.
Variable-width encodings allow a unified character encoding standard such as Unicode to use only the bytes necessary to represent a character, reducing the overhead that follows merging large character sets with smaller one.
Not all Chinese characters represent morphemes: It is evident that there is a difference in how homophones are processed in logographic and alphabetic languages, but whether the advantage for processing of homophones in the logographic languages Japanese and Chinese is due to the logographic nature of the scripts, or if it merely reflects an advantage for languages with more homophones regardless of script nature, remains to be seen.
Chinese character classification Chinese scholars have traditionally classified the Chinese characters hanzi into six types by etymology. As a result, a single character can end up representing multiple morphemes of similar meaning but different origins across several languages.
On the other hand, English words, for example, average five characters and a space per word  and thus need six bytes for every word.
Studies on the processing of logographic languages have amongst other things looked at neurobiological differences in processing, with one area of particular interest being hemispheric lateralization.
On the other hand, English words, for example, average five characters and a space per word  and thus need six bytes for every word. No effect of phonologically related context pictures were found for the reaction times for reading Chinese words. Radical-phonetic compounds, in which one component the radical indicates the general meaning of the character, and the other the phonetic hints at the pronunciation.
Chinese characters used in Japanese and Korean Within the context of the Chinese language, Chinese characters known as hanzi by and large represent words and morphemes rather than pure ideas; however, the adoption of Chinese characters by the Japanese and Korean languages where they are known as kanji and hanjarespectively have resulted in some complications to this picture.
In contrast, in a language such as Chinese where many characters with the same reading exists, it is hypothesized that the person reading the character will be more familiar with homophones, and that this familiarity will aid the processing of the character, and the subsequent selection of the correct pronunciation, leading to shorter reaction times when attending to the stimulus.
Since many logograms contain more than one grapheme, it is not clear which is more memory-efficient. More productive for the Chinese script were the two "compound" methods, i.
The Mayan system used logograms with phonetic complements like the Egyptian, while lacking ideographic components.Aug 20, · Egyptian hieroglyphs, which have their origins as logograms.
In written language, a logogram or logograph is a written character that represents a word or phrase. Chinese characters and Japanese kanji are logograms; some Egyptian hieroglyphs and some graphemes in cuneiform script are also logograms.
The use of logograms in writing. A logogram is a symbol that represents a word or part of a word. Chinese is a great example of a logographic writing system.
English, on the other hand, uses what’s called a phonologic writing system, in which the written symbols correspond to sounds and combine to represent strings of sounds.
A logograph is a letter, symbol, or sign used to represent a word or phrase. Adjective: logographic. Also known as a logogram.
The following logographs are available. In written language, a logogram or logograph is a written character that represents a word or phrase. Chinese characters (including Japanese kanji) the logograms were composed of letters that spelled out the word in Aramaic but were pronounced as in Persian (for instance, the combination m-l-k would be pronounced "shah").
The ampersand is the logogram &, Similarly, & was regarded as the 27th letter of the English alphabet, as taught to children in the US and elsewhere.
An example may be seen in M. B. Moore's book The Dixie Primer, for the Little Folks. Writing Type: Logographic, and Ideographic. Logogram is worth 12 points in Scrabble, and 16 points in Words with Friends. There are 8 letters in logogram: A G G L M O O R Words that start with logogram.
Words that contain logogram.Download