In both pastoralist and agrarian societies, elite groups accumulated wealth, creating more hierarchical social structures and promoting patriarchal forms of social organization. As civilizations expanded, they had to balance their need for more resources with environmental constraints such as the danger of undermining soil fertility.
Pastoral peoples domesticated animals and led their herds around grazing ranges. Early regions of state expansion or empire building were Mesopotamia, Babylonia, and the Nile Valley. Beginning about 10, years ago, the Neolithic Revolution led to the development of new and more complex economic and social systems.
Pastoralism and agriculture led to more reliable and abundant food supplies, which increased the population. They all produced agricultural surpluses that permitted significant specialization of labor. They also featured clearly stratified social hierarchies and organized long-distance trading relationships.
Things will get more specific and interesting in the following eras Populations increased; family groups gave way to village life and, later, to urban life with all its complexity. Social and gender hierarchies intensified as states expanded and cities multiplied. Surpluses of food and other goods led to specialization of labor, including new classes of artisans and warriors, and the development of elites.
Economic exchanges intensified within and between civilizations, as well as with nomadic pastoralists. These states were able to undertake territorial expansion and conquer surrounding states.
The main ideas are that humans evolved, left Africa, started farming, religion, invention, and social hierarchy. Possibly as a response to climatic change, permanent agricultural villages emerged first in the lands of the eastern Mediterranean. Culture played a significant role in unifying states through laws, language, literature, religion, myths, and monumental art.
All civilizations contained cities and generated complex institutions, such as political bureaucracies, armies, and religious hierarchies. Sounds like alot, right? While there were many differences between civilizations, they also shared important features.
The switch to agriculture created a more reliable, but not necessarily more diversified, food supply. Settled agriculture appeared in several different parts of the world. As populations grew, competition for surplus resources, especially food, led to greater social stratification, specialization of labor, increased trade, more complex systems of government and religion, and the development of record keeping.
Because pastoralists were mobile, they rarely accumulated large amounts of material possessions, which would have been a hindrance when they changed grazing areas. Agriculture and pastoralism began to transform human societies. The first states emerged within core civilizations.
Such a long time, one might think that this historical era will be the most difficult. This era sets the stage for humanity as we know it. States were powerful new systems of rule that mobilized surplus labor and resources over large areas.Gilgamesh, the fifth king of the city Uruk, is by far the best known individual of the ancient Mesopotamian society.
He rule about BCE -- for. This website contains notes, I.D.'s, and videos to aid you in studying for your AP World History course. The due dates for homework, quizzes, and tests will be posted on the calendar. Unit 1 - AP World History. Learn ap world history unit 1 with free interactive flashcards.
Choose from different sets of ap world history unit 1 flashcards on Quizlet. Test your AP World History knowledge with the below AP World History quizzes. These quizzes cover AP World History topics. AP Chemistry Quizzes AP Statistics Quizzes AP Statistics Quizzes Calculus SAT Math Test.
This unit is divided up in four nice categories: Industrialization, Imperialism, Revolutions, and Global Migration. The Industrial Revolution (which is probably in the Top 3 for most important events in world history) will change the way that everything is made and cause Europe to become even more exploitative of the surrounding world.
Unit Questions. Eric Burnett | Are you looking for a new textbook for your class that doesn't just explore the tales, traditions and turning points of world history, but ALSO the regional challenges of today (like Brexit, North Korea, the mounting refugee crisis and the presidency of Donald Trump)?Download